It might interest you that when we made the experiments that we did not read the literature well enough—and you know how that happens.
On the other hand, one would think that other people would have told us about it.
For instance, we had a colloquium at the time in Berlin at which all the important papers were discussed.
Nobody discussed Bohr’s paper.
Why not ?
The reason is that fifty years ago one was so convinced that nobody would, with the state of knowledge we had at that time, understand spectral line emission, so that if somebody published a paper about it, one assumed “probably it is not right.
So we did not know it. — James Franck
James Franck was a German physicist who won the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics with Gustav Hertz “for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”.
And I would like to say that when we got the Nobel prize together, I was only pleased, because he had contributed so much and he was so much more able with experiments than I am, that we really supplemented each other quite well.
James Franck talking about his work with Gustav Hertz.
Manne Siegbahn ( 1886 – 1978 ) was a Swedish physicist, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1924, for his work on X-ray spectroscopy.
Born in late nineteenth century in the southern Sweden, he had his schooling at Stockholm and university education at Lund.
Starting his career as a docent at the age of twenty-five at the University of Lund, he discovered a new group of wavelengths, known as the M series, in X-ray emission spectra, at the age of thirty and became full professor at thirty-four.
Later, he shifted to the University of Uppsala and remained there for next fourteen years. Here, he continued with his work on X-ray spectroscopy and established that X-rays, just as light, were electromagnetic radiation.
It was his work on X-ray spectroscopy, which earned him his Nobel Prize in Physics for year 1924 .
Later, he joined University of Stockholm and in the same year, he was chosen as the first director of the Nobel Institute of Physics, established by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. Here he initiated studies on nuclear physics and turned it into a center of excellence.
Young scientists from all over the world came here to work under his guidance. Today, the institute is known as Manne Siegbahn Institute.
The fact that Science walks forward on two feet, namely theory and experiment,
Sometimes it is one foot that is put forward first, sometimes the other, but continuous progress is only made by the use of both-by theorizing and then testing, or by finding new relations in the process of experimenting and then bringing the theoretical foot up and pushing it on beyond, and so on in unending alterations. – Robert Andrews Millikan
Cultivate the ” Habit of Attention ” and try to gain opportunities to hear wise men and women talk.
Indifference and inattention are the two most dangerous monsters that you ever meet.
Interest and attention will insure to you an education. — Robert Andrews Millikan
Robert Andrews Millikan
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923 was awarded to Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953) “for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect.”
“So fear not, friends. We’re like the circle at Stonehenge. We stand together, in darkness of night, and in the clear light of day. Some of us are leaning a bit more than others, some have tumbled down, some are missing a few parts and others have nearly crumbled. But we remain as a sign of the Wisdom of the ages past, and pointing to the One who is holding us together in love and light. And this place we stand is holy ground.”
Charles-Edouard Guillaume made a Paper Knife by using an alloy of steel and nickel which he had developed himself. there was something revolutionary and it changed the “Heart of Watches ” for ever.
Clockmakers struggled for years to find a solution to the impact of heat and cold on metals – in other words on clock movements and thus their accuracy.
Well, Guillaume was the man who solved the problem, when he invented invar, an alloy that does not react to changes in temperature.
This alloy is still used today, even in electronics.
Charles Édouard Guillaume ( 1861- 1938 ) won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1920, “in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys.”
His discovery of alloy ‘Invar’, that was impervious to thermal changes was regarded path-breaking in the field of science at that point. This was followed by his development of the alloy ‘Elinvar’.
Charles Édouard Guillaume was also the first to determine the ” Precise Temperature of Space “. He also authored several books related to his field of study.